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Ultrasound images of Nephrocalcinosis in neonates

These ultrasound images of neonatal kidneys show markedly bilateral echogenic renal pyramids, with chief involvement of the tips suggestive of medullary nephrocalcinosis wich is common in both term and premature infants.
Such nephrocalcinosis in neonates usually follows long term parenteral therapy or due to use of certain drugs notably gentamicin and furosemide "furosemide predispose to nephrocalcinosis by increasing urinary calcium excretion. This effect is mediated by inhibition of sodium chloride reabsorption in the thick ascending limb; this is associated with a decline in calcium reabsorption, as calcium transport passively follows that of sodium in this segment.".
Nephrocalcinosis can also be caused by low fluid intake in the neonate and due to oxygen dependency. This condition, in neonates, usually resolves following correction of the etiological factors.