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Pericardial Effusion Vs Pleural Effusion

Usually pericardial effusion(PE) is not found behind the left atrium,because the pericardial attachments are refleted onto the pulmonary veins.Somtimes,PE can be visualized in the oblique sinus,which is located behind the LA. A PE is anterior to the descending aorta,whereas a pleural effusion(PL) is posterior to the aorta.

What are Occipito-mental Views ? And lines for inspection.

(click on images to enlarge)
Occipito-mental View

The PA occipito-mental view provides excellent demonstration of the upper and middle thirds of the face including the orbital margins, frontal sinuses, zygomatic arches and maxillary antra.

Occipito-mental 30 View :

With 30 degrees of caudal angulation, the orbits are demonstrated less well. However, the zygomatic arches and the walls of the maxillary antra are seen clearly.

There are 3 lines for inspecting the OM views:

Line 1:
Look for widening of the zygomatico-frontal sutures
Fractures of the superior rim of the orbits
“Black-Eyebrow” sign due to orbital emphysema
Opacification / air-fluid level in the frontal sinuses

Line 2:
Look for fractures of the superior aspect of the zygomatic arch
Fractures of the inferior rim of the orbits
Soft tissue shadow in the superior maxillary antrum
Fractures of the nasoethmoid bones and medial orbits

Line 3:
Look for fractures of the inferior aspect of the zygomatic arch
Fractures of the lateral maxillary antrum
Opacification / air-fluid level in the maxillary sinuses
Fractures of the alveolar ridge
Compare the injured side with the uninjured side.

Noncontrast helical CT is the most sensitive and specific for the detection of renal stones

Which of the following tests is the most sensitive and specific for the detection of renal stones?

  • A) KUB plain film
  • B) Ultrasound
  • C) Intravenous pyelography
  • D) Noncontrast helical CT

The answer is D.
Compared with abdominal ultrasonography and KUB radiography, intravenous pyelography has greater sensitivity (64% to 87%) and specificity (92% to 94%) for the detection of renal calculi. Noncontrast helical CT is being used increasingly in the initial assessment of renal colic.
This imaging modality is fast and accurate, and it readily identifies all stone types in all locations. Its sensitivity (95% to 100%) and specificity (94% to 96%) suggest that it may definitively exclude stones in patients with abdominal pain.
Multiple transverse nonenhanced CT images demonstrate numerous 3-5-mm renal calculi (arrows) that were not depicted at US.