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Molar pregnancy....snow white appearance on ultrasound

Molar pregnancies are an uncommon and very frightening complication of pregnancy and occurs due to an abnormal fertilization process.The formal medical term for a molar pregnancy is "hydatidiform mole."

The diagnosis of molar pregnancy can nearly always be made by ultrasound, because the chorionic villi of a typical complete mole proliferate with vacuolar swelling and produce a characteristic vesicular sonographic pattern.
• Previously when the diagnosis was made at a later stage, the classical ‘snowstorm’ pattern of the uterus was described; however this is not commonly seen now.
Scan of the uterus shows the classical bunch-of-grapes appearance or snow-storm appearance in the uterine cavity is noted. This is the typical appearance of a gestational trophoblastic disease.
• Benson et al reported that the majority of first trimester complete moles demonstrated a typical
sonographic appearance of a complex and echogenic intrauterine mass containing many small
cystic spaces {which correspond to the hydropic villi on gross pathology}.

X-ray Osgood-Schlatter disease

Osgood Schlatters disease is a very common cause of knee pain in children and young athletes usually between the ages of 10 and 15. It occurs due to a period of rapid growth, combined with a high level of sporting activity.

Imaging Findings

* Normal x-ray findings do not exclude the disease, which is diagnosed clinically
* Radiographs have Limited role "Clinical diagnosis"...............

 Lateral radiograph of the knee demonstrating fragmentation of the tibial tubercle with overlying soft tissue swelling.

Hallux varus in X-ray

Hallux varus is a deformity of the great toe joint where the hallux is deviated medially (towards the midline of the body) away from the first metatarsal bone. The hallux usually moves in the transverse plane.
The condition has various degrees ..............

Acute pulmonary edema following surgery

This patient became acutely short of breath following surgery. Why is this an emergency? The patient has:
  • a. Left lower lobe pneumonia.
  • b. Acute pulmonary edema.
  • c. A large pneumothorax.
  • d. A large pericardial effusion.
  • e. A ruptured gastric ulcer.

Correct Answer: Acute pulmonary edema.

There is diffuse airspace disease in both lungs causing almost complete opacification of both lungs. This came on suddenly and is characteristic of pulmonary edema. Other fluids can inhabit the airspaces such as blood or gastric aspirate, but they have different clinical stories and are less common than acute pulmonary edema. This patient had been hypotensive and was suffering from non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Vasopressors and diuretics were used in his treatment.

Scaphoid fractures overview

A Scaphoid fracture is the most common type of wrist fracture which is almost always caused by a fall on the outstretched hand..Scaphoid fractures usually cause pain and swelling at the base of the thumb. The pain may be severe when you move the thumb or wrist, or when the patient try to grip something.
Anatomic snuffbox tenderness is a highly sensitive test for scaphoid fracture, whereas scaphoid compression pain and tenderness of the scaphoid tubercle tend to be more specific. Initial radiographs in patients suspected of having a scaphoid fracture should include anteroposterior, lateral, oblique, and scaphoid wrist views..........

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